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Populiariausia ir dažniausiai diskutuojama tarpkultūrinių santykių sfera yra tarptautiniai santykiai ir jų išvestinė arba prielaida, kaip pažiūrėsime. Silpna kastų sistema, susijusi su mišriais giminystės ir nomenklatūriniais ryšiais, egzistuoja ir Lietuvoje. Their willingness to buy GM foods was quite high since they saw GM technology as the best current solution to prevent plant diseases and reduce pesticide use.

ISSN Regional Formation and Development Studies, No. In this study it is summarized available scientific data on consumer attitudes towards new technologies in food production genetic engineering, nanotechnologies, cloning and identified the key indicators that make up the consumer point of view and attitude. Many kind of different literature and scientific data were analyzed to compare attitude of consumers from different countries groupon greitis pažintys chicago the world towards use of new technologies in food production.

Gene engineering One of the hottest topics of discussion in our days is gene engineering. Since that time many food plants and crops are being genetically modified, introducing a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in this species. Examples include resistance to certain pests, diseases or environmental conditions; these are so called first generation of GMOs.

Second generation of GMOs is altered in such a way to increase nutritional value, quality of crops and also to reduce risk to human health. Methods to control gene expression are used, so the crops produce higher concentrations of known nutrients and disease-fighting compounds. An example of a crop with altered gene expression to improve the quality of the product is the soybean that has been developed to produce more stearic acid, thus giving soybean oil better heat stability, to match the properties of trans-hydrogenated fatty acids.

With this alteration, less hydrogenated oils can be utilized for the same traditional purposes as hydrogenated oils. One more example is tomatoes bred to produce higher amounts of lycopene, a compound that has been linked to lower blood cholesterol levels, and lower risk of breast and prostate cancers.

Actually obtaining of such plants is nothing new. Already more than30 years ago oilseed rape with very low toxic erucic acid content was obtained using selection methods. Today the rape is the main raw material in the world for the production of vegetable oil. Although there is intensive work ongoing to obtain genetically modified GM food with enhanced nutritional properties just few of them has reached the market.

Nanotechnology Nanotechnology — engineering very small particles, usually defined at a scale of between 1 and nm which now is widely spread in the food production.

Kęstutis Kardelis, Utenos kolegija Utena university of applied sciences Prof. Laimutė Kardelienė, Utenos kolegija Utena university of applied sciences Prof. Straipsnių rinkinys leidžiamas 1 kartą per metus. Straipsniai recenzuojami ir spausdinami lietuvių, anglų kalbomis.

The application of nanotechnology to the agricultural and food industries was first addressed by a United States Department of Agriculture groupon greitis pažintys chicago published in September Nanoscale science and engineering for agriculture and food systems, The prediction is that nanotechnology will transform the entire food industry, changing the way food is produced, processed, packaged, transported, and consumed.

Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the agricultural and food industry with new tools for the molecular treatment of diseases, rapid disease detection, enhancing the ability of groupon greitis pažintys chicago to absorb nutrients etc.

Smart sensors and smart delivery systems will help the agricultural industry combat viruses and other crop pathogens. In the near future nanostructured catalysts will be available which will increase the efficiency of pesticides and herbicides, allowing lower doses to be used. Nanotechnology will also protect the environment indirectly through the use of alternative renewable energy supplies, and filters or catalysts to reduce pollution and clean-up existing pollutants.

The impact of nanotechnology in the food industry has become more apparent over the last few years. Nanotechnology foods and food packaging are already commercialized, though the number of products is still low. The types of application include: smart packaging, on demand preservatives, and interactive foods. The concept is that thousands groupon greitis pažintys chicago nanocapsules containing flavour or colour enhancers or added nutritional elements such as vitaminswould remain dormant in the food and only be released when triggered by the consumer Dunn, Cloning Cloning was originally used in microbiology and agriculture, and is the process of multiplying single organisms by means of asexual reproduction to create a population of identical individuals EGE, Sincewhen the first fully cloned domesticated farm animal, Dolly the Sheep, was born cows, goats, poultry and fish-based clones have been created, primarily through application of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer which does not involve genetic modification and transgenic cloning, which allows the breeding of hybrid animals using genetic material from different species.

The scientific and commercial factors driving animal cloning technology in agriculture relate to improving the quality, productivity and environmental impact of breeding stock Butler, Issue of animal cloning for food supply is a new and complex topic, society and politicians is considering it carefully in the context of the existing legal framework, bearing in mind food safety, the desire of consumers for information, animal health and welfare, and other relevant factors such as ethical considerations.

It is obviously that over the past hundred years, the food assortment groupon greitis pažintys chicago dramatically changed, and with it has also changed the composition of the nutrient intake. Attitude of consumers was found out applying a variety of methods, groupon greitis pažintys chicago are widely used in marketing research: focus group discussions, population survey, etc.

In these studies, the results identified a number of the aspects that make up the attitudes of consumers towards products made with the new technologies.

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Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers.

Most of the investigations are conducted in the field of biotechnology and use of GMOs in food production.

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For example, the field experiments were conducted in the German and French speaking part of Switzerland to compare revealed consumer preferences towards GM food Aerni et al. In the experiment three clearly labeled types of corn bread were offered at five different market stands across the French and German-speaking part of Switzerland: one made with organic, one made with conventional, and one made with GM corn.

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InSwitzerland expressed its negative attitude towards GMO use in agriculture and imposed a moratorium on GM crops in the country. However, five years later the results of mentioned experiment showed that Swiss consumers treat GM foods just like any other type of novel food.

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It was con- 8 ISSN Respondents were most likely to agree that citizens have too little information in whether biotechnology is used in the food. However, almost all of them also put attention to consider risks to non-target organisms such as Monarch butterflies which could be affected by such GM crops.

The majority of respondents also believed that the U. In the position of American Dietetic Association Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, it was argued that agricultural and food biotechnology can improve the quality and safety of food, increase its nutritional value and variety of food available for consumption, improve the productivity of food production, food processing, distribution, and environment and waste management.

In addition, the Association urges the governments, food producers, distributors and retailers, as well as food experts and professionals to collaborate to ensure awareness 60 greitasis pažintys consumers about new technologies and their benefits.

The results showed that the Chinese acceptance and willingness to buy GM food is much higher than in many other countries around the world. People with low groupon greitis pažintys chicago more concerned about pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. Their willingness to buy GM foods was quite high since they saw GM technology as the best current solution to prevent plant diseases and reduce pesticide use. Consumers more interested in nutritional benefits had the higher probability of buying GM foods groupon greitis pažintys chicago they saw the direct nutritional benefits that GM technology can bring to consumers.

The consumers with high income, were less concerned about food, but were more concerned and showed greater interest in non-food application of GM technology, such as in medicines. According results of investigation conducted in by Miguel Hernandez University in Spain, concretely in the province of Alicante, located in the southeast of this country, the use of biotechnology is a sensitive issue among consumers due to potential risks to human and animal health and the environment.

However, producers were noticing a direct economic benefit, so that in society an economic, as well as a political and social, debate is taking place concerning this topic Martinez-Poveda et al. In spite of GMO labeling being recognized by the majority of consumers few really knew its meaning or implications.

Possibly due to this lack of knowledge, there was growing interest among consumers on GMOs and a desire to acquire knowledge of this matter. Consumers stated that in most cases information is scarce and unclear.

Besides, they demanded information from a credible source of health and scientific professionals. Consumers indicated that the available information is a daunting and confusing, and groupon greitis pažintys chicago need to look for other reliable sources lovoo pokalbiai flirt app information to experts in the field.

One of the aspects that concerns Spanish consumers the most, was the perceived risk from the consumption of certain foods. The case of GM food should be very particularly considered since it deals with a product without previous experience on the food market. Detected factors that influence perceived risk for GM foods were: existing information, the source and credibility of that information, and consumer concern for health.

Investigation of Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Aerni and Bernauer, tried to find out stakeholder perceptions and interests in the public debates on the risks and benefits of GMOs in developing countries Philippines, Mexico and South Africa.

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The study found out that most local stakeholders in these countries tend to have pragmatic views toward the use of GMOs. Yet, they also revealed a trend toward political polarization that is linked to the transatlantic dispute on GMOs.

The survey results showed that most of the stakeholders believed that agricultural biotechnology had the potential to solve important problems in agriculture drought, pest infestation, plant disease, high use of pesticidesand did not pose a significant health risk to consumers.

Yet, there were also concerns regarding the potential negative impact of such crops on the natural environment and the difficulties of implementing strict regulations well as lack of market access, too little investment in research and development, and infrastructure.

The results of the surveys suggest that the differences in perception in the Philippines, Mexico, and South Africa were often related to different historical, political, ecological, and socio-economic conditions. Aarhus school of Business in Denmark conducted a study on the use of enzymes in food production Søndergaard et al. This study investigated the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three European countries Finland, Germany and Italy.

Results showed that consumers were most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods and non GMO use in general. Results also showed that environmental concern and attitudes to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods.

Especially attitudes to technology, social trust and the level of knowledge of enzymes and biotechnology showed large variations between countries, indicating that the role these play for attitude formation may be culturally dependent. Attitudes to the enzyme production methods have a fairly strong impact on buying intentions for the product concepts tested, whereas price and the benefits have minor effects.

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In cooperation with several scientific institutions in Germany there was the study performed kiaušinių donoras pažintys analyze the attitudes towards genetic modification, the knowledge about it and its acceptability in different application areas among German consumers Christoph et al.

According to the results, it was doubted that future studies about risks and benefits will make consumers change their attitudes towards genetic modification.

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The consumers who opposed genetic modification lack trust in authorities, industry and scientists. Even if new studies showed the risks of GMOs are nonexistent or manageable, these consumers would be unlikely to change their attitudes because they would lack trust in the source of information.

It was also found groupon greitis pažintys chicago that education was not cause to support genetic modification, because good knowledge does not automatically imply support as this study showed.

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As groupon greitis pažintys chicago, people in Germany had different opinions about technologies and there was not a single one which was supported by all consumers. Genetic modification will likely never reach full support. Therefore, a successful management of the coexistence of GM and GM-free production appears to be a crucial step in fostering the social acceptance of the technology.

In view of the study conducted by the experts from different European scientific institutions Frewer at al. If consumers can control consumption of associated products with labeling for example then it is anticipated that consumer acceptance is likely to be higher compared to situations where applications are uncontained and untraceable.

According data obtained consumers were more accepting of the different applications presented if they perceived the associated personal and societal benefits to outweigh potential risks.

STUDIJOS ŠIUOLAIKINĖJE VISUOMENĖJE STUDIES IN MODERN SOCIETY

However, consumers were not homogenous in their perceptions of the applications. Product characteristics e. Results show that many consumers in both countries are reluctant to accept nanotechnology in food - French consumers are more reluctant to accept nano-packaging, whereas German consumers are less inclined to accept nano-fortification compared with the respective other application.

For this moment direct empirical evidence on public perceptions of food products derived from cloned animals is limited. Not all consumers share the same attitudes toward animal cloning, but data available for this moment shows that Americans may be more accepting of consuming cloned animal products than Europeans.

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Accordingly, public perception of animal cloning is likely to play a major role in its development and its commercial prospects. For Europe much of the research stems from the series of Eurobarometer surveys on Biotechnology, and According to Eurobarometer datait should be noted that the only animal application explicitly mentioning cloning Cloning animals such as sheep to get milk which can be used to make medicines and vaccines is the second least supported application — surpassed only by GM foods.

This seems to indicate that cloning is a particularly controversial technology. However, the skepticism may reflect not only the above-mentioned animal-factor, but also the historical context of the late s. Hence there is a clear resemblance between the application asked about and the, at that time, well known and in many countries alarming, arrival of Dolly the sheep.

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The low score may thus partly reflect generally negative discourse about Dolly in particular and cloning in general that prevailed in many EU countries in the late s Lassen, It is obviously that all these findings indicate that consumer attitude toward use of new technologies is very complex as it is impacted groupon greitis pažintys chicago different concerns and uncertainties. Conclusions This study has indicated a number of factors that may be associated with consumer responses towards new food technologies.